Settlement studies on the National Museum Building, Ottawa, Canada

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(2)

NATIONkL H'Sr;P\HC'f.i C O U M C I t OF CANADA LIl'JIS IdN r)F BUIIA.'ING RT- SFAHCH

SETTLEMPNT STUDIES ON THE

NATIONAL MUSEUM

BUILDING,

OTTAWA, CA1iAT.A

A s a t a t a n t Reaerrah Offiaer, S o i l Meohmtee Seation

OTTAP:I\

November, 19%. DBR He ort

(3)

DIVISION OF B1!ILDIMG RRSBAHCH

SE'i"TLEME1lT STlSDI$S ON THE

KATIQNAL

MUSEUM BUILi3fNGm OTTAWA, CANADA

Carl

B e

CrawFord

Alniatant Hesearoh O f f iuer, 9011 luisohanics Seotlon

A paper rubmitted

to

the Third International Confareno. on So11 Bpleahtanios and Foundation

Engineering, S w i f k e r l e n d ,

1953.

(3eaeion

4

Saction

VI)

(4)

'Ihe bu:'ldirag

for

the National Museurn o f Canada l a a four-storey s t m a t u r e ebout

400

f e a t long and 150 f a e t wide nith heavy e x t e r i o r w a l l e of sandatone resting on spread footings. Since aompletlon of

the building in 1910, f o o t i n g load8 which

vary

from about

1

1/2 to

4

tans per a w a r e f s o t ]nave caused a difr'arrsntial asttlsrr,ent of

more

than 1 1/2 f e e t ,

b r i n g s show that thts building is underlain by about 50 f e e t

o f m n a i t i v e , [email protected] marine a l a y . Below t h l a i s a v a r i e t y o f

i

s i l t y o l a y a , oleyey s i l t s , and sands. Glacial t P l l ocourr a t a

depth of about 120 f e e t and bedroak tat 132 f e e t . Regular engineering

t e s t a were performed on undiarturbed sar:2beg obtained outside the influenee o f thr, b u i l d l w in order t o d e b n n i n s p a i n s i a s , ratrength, eunrolfdetion and p l a s t i a i t y oharauteristlar o f the sotl.

An Attenpt i a made t o datermine the oaura of arettlemnts and

to

con:pute

settlenaente using a011 meahanion theoriess T h ~ a a rsavemente

_

are onmpared with aaturl s e t t l a m n t ~ . T b o r a t f o a l bearing oapaolty

Is compared w i t h estimated n o t u a l baaring; ~ a p a o i t y ~ Conqents are

. made on the existing f o ~ d ~ t i o n design and a deslgn whloh

would

have basn chorsen for t h i a building on the b a a i a of modern prectloe.

(5)

f A PkUmB* Hattonal du Csnabs,

aonatrult

m

1910, r a t

rpn b a t h a n t

ds quaat~a +%[email protected]@ d ~ a

p u

2m?r

hOO

piec2lr do

longueur

+t 150 pisdm d. LBIF~IIUF rvecs dasr laosrbs ~ u r s sr.tir?arurea an d r r

t a i X l 4

are

repountr

aur

dcrs ar.i;lut,tazantr..

L.n

n I l r r ~ e r3es f o n d ~ . t l : w s , qczi

%?aria

de

1.5

If

Wrrneie ptir pZed ~ F ~ P I ; ~ IP prownqub 64s t a s a e m n t a d i r f d a ~ ~ . n t i r l m

d.

plum

Je

1.5

p i s d s .

Lea ~ ~ ~ , d & f j e ~

ont

rZivd16 qua 2. blf;iaront a r t ngtu8 a w m e souobrr

de $"J ,hcde dpnrgiZrs

:..arlna

t d o n e n e i b h at; n a ; ~ m a s l b 2 e . Plus b a r on trcuvs b e rrgl3an rrtablonrmugata,

reb'bos

[email protected]

e t stables

fin#.

L&

[email protected]

hlarcin$rr, eaEvlenas

d

uns

p~rrf~3n&aur 6+ 120 piado

s$

la

roo&

& f a n 4 i!

1p

~ ! L B ~ s . i4*err ~ l ~ [email protected]?daPA~ i d

onti

f a 3 t e

sur

do8

e m a t t e a de ac?.nda&ea prsvlrmnt 646 f 0 ~ a g . 6 8 i t ~ & # en 6ahOrt~ (j,

l"nfl~-exsoe da l a a h r @ du

bbtimnt,

avsa 1s but dDabtantr Xa

ao1~l"r)~kt:on ~ar1:3aBP18triq~.~ la r d n i a b r m s

8u

c r S ~ b l l e m e n t a t

lor

asructSrl

~ t i q u e r da oonaolidatlnn st p l a n t l a i b 6 .

9x1 e tbenryb

da d4tsbminer

lee aausss der, k e r a m a t a si; dm rrafaular Iss Oaaemaanta p r o b ~ b l a a ae b e a n t sur

la#

t h b r i r a da l e i IrrQciniqua den

sola.

Can

nouvamnts

ant BLt6

a o m ~ a ~ b r avo8

l a 8

kanenwntr aatUllXm e ~ t l m h a .

La

( ~ l p ~ l b i t d

C04

wu~lt.ment thbrtqulr

8t8 aolr:psrle erne 2 1 aspaoit4 crxiatnak mZs~&. IAI d i f f h m n ~ e 8

antwo

l e u

plena dun fondat3 on8 a~>pXlqu&r a t la8 p h n r qua rumteat

4 t 9 dlwiahs

urtwlle~~rmt,

bar68 e w 1s pratique nodema,

~ n t

9bd

(6)

OTTAWA, C W P A

by Carl

B.

Crurford

The

foundation problem

of the

Matloarrl i3uraum Eluildtn&

i n

Ottawa,

Canada,

have i n % e m s b d ~ i n e s r r

r h o @ 1910

when,

a f t e r

muah biff

loulty,

tho

a t r u o t u f . war aomp1at;ed. Qne of tha

funotion8

of

the Divflaion

of

Bulldlrqg Ra.s.roh

of t;B.

Hationrl

Rerear& Cormail

i 8

t o h v s a t i g a t e buildirrg problem8 in

C u n d a ,

Raomtly,

th,

Dlvirian

war

g l t e n the oppastunlQ of

study-

the

foundation oondltlons

or t h i s l n t e r e r t i a g s t r u a t w e .

T h i r

i r

a 8unwaary

report

of

the maul%s of the study.

PIUUIDIlSQ PGSLOli

The

Mu8eum

W i l d i n g

20

a f

our-rtorey struatura about

400

f e e t

low

mad

150 f e e t

vide w i t h

h0.w

sandstone bearing

w d . 1 8 rhit3h on ~ P 0 . d

f 0 0 t b g 8 .

A 8 w i l l

be 80.n

f r o m

th,

i l l u 8 t r a t i o n 8 ,

it

i r

an

a x a ~ l a

of Vlotmriur r r s h i t e a t u n

r t

i t r marrive bartl

Slnoe

tkmm 18

no reoord of

Um

design loadr f o r the

W e u a , a might r n i l y r i r of t h e Buildirrg wa8

mado

to

datenalm

footing loadr

on

the

r o i l ,

If

the fwntlationr

wrcl

arauslbd to

b s

aompletaly f l e x i b l a , u n i t load8

up

to

5

)/b

tans par r q u u s

foot

would

s x i r t .

No

doubt

the berry

foundation8

.rs

eapabla

of ooneiderable dl8tribution

o f load

and

tba ealaulatad

footlag

pmrrurea

mre

bsXletad

to be wlthln

56

of' th6

aottaal prer8urea,

Load

artintaterr aoda i n 1915

.p.

verg slose t o thore obtained

(7)

F i g u r e r

1 mad 2 shcnr that

f o o t i n g 8

rru at tw,

d i r f o m n t

o l o v a t i o n 8

and that

unit

load8 + m y widely.

T h l 8

&r

r e r u l t s d

in

8ororo d i f f m r e n t l a l aottlearrnt.

F a r t u n r t o l y , above t h e

ground

f l o o r

t b

i n t a r n a l a t r u a t u r e

18

a l r r l o d o n t i r r l j on p l a k g i r d e r r

whieh

8pen t h o e x t e r i o r w a l l r , T h i r

her

slrlowod r o l e t l v o l j

uniform sottlemmnt

of Unt

uppar

partion

of

a;h.

Buildingo

Th.

bammrsat aad ground

floor.,

hotmvor,

are

.upported on b o t h

e x t e r i o r

m d interior

faotingr,

and

8 o m n

distortion

o f

tho

f l a a r a

and

i n t e r i o r

w a l l 8 18

a r l d a n t .

P i g u m

3

rhowr two t y p l a a l Sailurea

of

i n t a r i o r b r i a k

w a l l s ,

Those P a l l u ~ s s , although rl-

i n

appearmso,

nre n o t

of gmat

r t r u c r t u r a l impsrtanoo,

T h e

sub-baaemeat N o o r

i s

a

s t s i k l n g

i l l u s t r a t i o n of d i f f o m a t i a l movamant.

Thm

f l o o ~

undulate8

from

f o o t i n g t o foot-

.ad

t h t r a s p e a t 28 o f t o a axrggoretod

by tho

springlag-up of foot*.

unbar

ozahwrys whom

-0

l o a d

18

Intwrrrrptod.

I n

ono lnatanao

between two heavy pillars a

oontinu-

o u r f o o t i n g

had

broken and

had

ra1a.d

tbs

f l o o r

by

s o r o r a l inohom,

Conaeqrwntly t h e

aub-baremant

floor 18.8

of

1 L t t l o

um

in

dwtomtning

a a t u d r o t t l n a a n t r ,

8 o t t l e m n t a wore notiood 0v.a

during

oonatruotion,

BY

1915

th.

towmr

a t

t h

f r o n t of

t b

Building was

out o f

pluaab

by mm than a

foot.

Conurquantly,

d w i n g t h a t y a m tho

a e t t l o m a t

of

t h o 0 u i l d l n g

w 8 8

o w m f u l l y obaorvod,

f n 1916

t h a upper p o r t i o n

o r t h o tower

was

romvod

t o prrrvont eaarpleto f ~ i l r t r o ,

PZgtwo

4

rhowa

tb

b u i l d i n g and, s o p w a t o l y ,

tkm origlnnl

towor.

Ob8orvatlons fndisaBa

that

l i t t l o rottlonrsnt of Bh, Buildbsg

has

ooourmd s i n e 0

t h o

tower

w a r

r o ~ # ) f o d ,

POP

thla L Y ~ I O S J

p m s a w ~

ahmm

I.A ~ l g u r r , I

i n a i u d e

t b

weight o r

tbr,

tower,

(8)

T&

t o t e l

weight of

tb Bublding

i r

about 65,600

ton8

or

whiah

l r r r

than 2$ i r l i v e load. The weieJht of a o i l

s x e n r a k d

wra

about of t b w.Qbt of the

B ~ i l d i r r g .

T h e rvarorrZ

of

the wpper

portion

of ths towar

reduead

t b

erorraspondiag foot-

p r a a r ~ a r

b~

35%.

S t r a a s

dirtributlan in

tbe r o i l benaath

oariota8 p o i n t s

weis

6atarainad

using

influsnea o h a r t r (Hawaaar3r 1942).

For tho

d a t e r a i n a t i o n

o f

aacrh

polnt

on

the

r e ~ t i ~ e l

a t n u e

p r o f i l m

four

valuer wpm neoarsaryr

(1)

a t m a r

due to o r i g i n r l

ovarburdan,

( 2 )

r t r a s r

due

t o uppar footings,

( 3 )

a m a s dua

t o

3 o w a ~

fwting8, and

(4)

negative

a t m a r

due

t o

roil

~ a ~ m v a d .

F u r t b r

t~omplioationr

were introduead

by the

oarir$y

of

looting p r a s s w a r ,

5avar.l t y p i o a l p r o f i l a r

of' r a r t i o a l strmsr

w i t h

dapth

us

b u m %n

Figura

5 ,

The

6 ~ ~ r 0 8 g ~ k n d i n g

p o i n t s

un&r

the

b d l d h g

whera r t r e r a a a

w e r e romputed are

ahom

Pn P u u r a 1.

A l l

obaurvations in

t h l r atudy

ware mda

f a r om-half

of

tbn

building.

T h i r has

riarpliffsd

the atudj urQ i 8

j u r t f f l a d

beeatam t l m

building

i r

r y m a t ~ i a e l 5n a h n ~ . , l a d i n g ,

end noturl

sa

t

tlesmnt

,

80XL SSFPDIBS

~ o r ; t n g a

s b a w %hat th, Build-

m s t r on a 1

f

Olfooe soil

cbporit.

Th.

uppar

50

f a a t traneirtr

of

eolpl+.rribla

ma*

olr$

which

grad48 into olryay

s i l t , scurd md glr6irJ till w i t h

i n o m a r m dap-.

Thia e l a j , deporltad

in aa a m of the

a a r

whloh

Lnradad

t b

ragion mar

th+

a o s a

o f

i?lair?a6sna

ti-, $8

o a m m l j

uallad

%da a l q " (JoLpJrton 1917).

I t

m n r r

a

(9)

end

Quabaa

pmrrin0.8,

Two borlnge wore mado at p o i n t s

A

and G

ar

rbwn

in

F Q U N

2.

Ih

boring A,

aontinuouu

s a r p l l q war o.rciad

o u t to

a depth

of

80 f e a t , uaing a 2-inoh, thin-walls d

p i s t o n

smqpler. I n t e r m i t t e n t s p l i t

spoon

samples wore t&on below t h i s depth

and

rock

uar

e n e o u % e r e d at

1%

Soat. A t boring C, o o n t h u o u r

s a p l e a were awoured

to

a depth of

45

foe*

us-

a thin-wallad

piaton s a w l e r .

In

add'tion

t o

&are two boring8 outeldo tb.

innuone.

of t h o Building, four bor-a warm made

fraa

sub-

baaemant at p o i n t 8 Be

PI

$, u ~ d

F

(Flgurl, 1 ) a d m d i a t w b . 4

saaplos obtllinod, Owiw

to

the v a r i e t y of bombole and footiag olevationa,

a l l araples

arm

r n f o ~ m d

to

absolutm e l e v a t i o n

above a ~ a lava1 in foot. Tho ground I e r o l around t h o b u i l d l q 1s

at elovatian

234.5.

Laboratorj teati8

umm

pertormod

on them

8alppl.8 urd

the r e s u l t s arm & o m in F i g m a 6 t o 11. F i g u r n 6 shows eh.

maul

ta o f g r a i n arise analyses

of'

the ~umples

fmaa

bop- A.

Yovoral rurdom b a t s

oa

r r a p l e s

f r o m

t h other brings m e 4

oloeoly with thwae r o s u l t a . In no aase did the pwrouatago of tho r r r i o u a il.aetions vary laor. than

7$

.nd the avorag0 orriatian u r a

aC)$,

P i g u m

7

show8 uater oontenta, Attorbe% l l w i t s and blu

Ca8agrmds o l ~ r s i f l a a t l o a (Guagrmb.

1948)

for saxples f ~ o r

bar-8

A rad C.

T b

averego wator oaatent owva w u obtrinod

by avoraging gr?oupa of data.

Tho

mdromkr m d Attolsbsrg llait toat. mm porFom8d on ample t r b m h g 8 and are thorrfozw avmragos

for

the a m p l e ,

(10)

osra,

a t alevation 194.0 reparat* Atterbarg l i m i t r w r a datemuhad

on two

d i a t i n o t

layers and the leeaultrr ~;r?l,

ahown ia

F I g w

7.

Layer8

w i t h nore

gronounoed d i f f s r a n a s a

In

proportierr

rro

l l k a l j

to be

pmrant.

Results o f

uneonfiaard oompres8ion t e a t 8 porforared a t

a

r a t e

of dtrsbfn e q u a l t o 1%

p e r minute

clsl

a a r e f u l l y a u t .paaiman8

3

inohes

h%gh

by

l*

inahen in

diameter

f r o m

A and C boriag

r a g l a s

are

abwn

In

Figure 8. The

arepage atawe,

"AR, wan

obtained

by

aver%*

groupr

of p a i n t r .

The aotual strength

i r

oanridormd

t o

ba n e a r

the

naatimuln values obtainad

a8 8hom in a w n

"B",

a l l o w h g

for sanpls

diaturbanaa

m d

irZarurer near tha

s W a o e

(Rutledtpa 19&).

The strangth of' tha u g p e ~

rmaila

w a s graatly

afioatad i n

the

laboratory

b j

f i r s u r e

m whioh I t w a 8

thotaght would

not

appreoiabXy

redue.

t h e

in

e i t u rtrength.

8tt.apts

were mula

t o t e n t mmoulded rrpaoimoar

but

t h e ~ n r i t i v i t y

of

the

8 o l l

ma&

thir i r g o s r i b l a .

Sarsr.3 t x 4 u i a l guiak-last8

waxw

perfomed

on 8raplem

in

m

o f f o r t t o determino

tho

a f f e o t

of

f i r s w a s oa

8tmngth

V ~ U but U ~ 0W%Ilg

t o qP.Paftl8 diPf'ioUlth8

-8. ~ l l U l t 8

rzot

awgortad.

Conrolidation t a r t 8 m r a p a d o m r d on undirturbed

rmplerr from

rll

borcrhdlan.

Typioal pllsmrwa r o r a u s

v o i d

m t i o

ourvom

r r o

rbown

i n Figure 9.

Ttro

apeaiel t e a t 8 ware

made

u 8 l q

d l

load-

i n o ~ . m a n t r llnd thara rhowad

the

pra-aonrolldatlon

l o a d

W

ba Lncrraaud froa

16

t o

3% by

slaw

lording.

(11)

SpeaZllia

yrrcrrity

or t b

roil

partictlsr wea fousrd

ta

avmrwe

about

4.83 w%Bh 1P&$la vurirtioa thawagbo-ttt

tkm

top

50 faat. Unit w%@b drtamdmat$onr

-r+

rab., rra rW'mngtb and crottrolidatlou m X m a urd

rmr

t h a w

m-lta

O ~ P W P & B p m r r w e i

uor,

e ~ u w .

i"rrwr

ooncslldrtioarr

$eat mstoltr

two

aumer of tha

wmt

pmbrbZ8

pawaon8olZdrtlsn lo&

w e pliott.6

In

F ~ ~ w o 10 tog.UwP Vith t o a d n d affaatirs ovwbrrrden

r f m r w r .

Tua

iPlkrpzvtrtiap8

or

t b ?potbod of p+mmaoXl61tJ0n

a m

p ~ r a i b l a

tma

%*at 1~l)l)Utb. C r u r ( l ~ (11, puwrllelm ~b8 affaeaiV8 overburden stress eww,

W i , a a t r ~

prroaasolidatbn

arurrtd br ~t.pbwdera *&t ha8

krrn

r+mvmb during tb. hlawrp

of

the m d l m t . Ousrp (21,

prm31aZlq

t h

total o+.*irdm

rtmrr surrr,

mprvurnta pllucsen.ol%&tlon

duo to tamper- lmerlsg

aT th.

grounbuater

Wle

mmlng artewal aoomlldation

dur-

t&

hlr6am

sf the

~ i l l m m a t .

Tb, i l i & a $

cUapluoemnt t o

the

rwt would bo d r ~ t o rubaeqwnUy atripped o+.r*busb.n.

A 8 b a t 8

36-7 a d

36-9 f r r r P ~

bar-

A md h O t 8

*&

rrrd

[email protected]

uc, fnar borirrg C, i t l r

d V f i o u l t

t o d l r ~ a g u 4 there ~ e m l t a . T&n tw iatmrpp.trtlan8 &paid

in

pa^$

on

fbr rUl4iOj

o f [email protected] rrrruZtrr betwsn

elarrtioru

3~35 .nb

af.

If

Full

ws-4 fr divan t o bn+m

reaultr

tbr

raocuab

Int+rpmt;etioa. i s WN

rrammsbla. If, baurvar, C b y ma^ be dirrr+yamkd the f i r a t

tnbwpretrtlan, owva (21,

Zr

w r a

reawarbb.

0 t h . ~

krrt

m4Utl

in ths t a n d i r k viehaltf suppop& M a b t e ~ m b t i r a r . 3 b

&owst.iar; o f ttw w a k r table uou&d

t h m f o ~

aavm had t o be r

looal

phoruwmar

ovor

r

l l r i t a d

am&. TSzr

opiaioa

of

gaologiaOa

(12)

6- U ~ N P I O m ? w

I - F ~ & &

QZ

%b

grOdilA1Q1ab~ t~bl+,

r l t b n s ~ & mb,lble,

i n

q i l l k

walilt8ljlo

POP

tbam

maroar O U F I E ~ ( X ) %a 0 ~ ~ 1 1 d e m d b6 Bll,

b a r t

inurpmt~tion

o f

preoonrolidr%%orr

load mb W8

aurrv

ured

for

o ~ ~ o l l d r t ~ o n

8atiblomat aalaufatiaar. 'Itbs

omaumensl,

of

?%arum8

doma

to

a20ra0ion dl0

and

tha

dndlcra~im

o f clLorisaat%tm down Iso bmak in fib+

prwmn8oltbat2on

o w n , 8%

.&*ration

a 3

I 8

avtdejzum

thrt the

gawaursdwetmr

tabfa ha8

b#n

10~lbr

than

1% $8

am#

but not

m o a 8 8 a ~ I l j

l o w

enough b olilas

pmarnrolid+t;im

b070nU 6-

(1).

Or&

81- .ad ALk+era f i r i t 8 k 8 t

mrm%tr

( Y l g u t . 8 6

.nd

7 )

i n d l o a k that a c3SLai0~8 14feb fo2*

a a r o l i d . t l o a

~ Q O W U

a t olevalcisn

164.0

cst

U-r.

*rinw+

a m

a180

oaour

at th.

mot* alavattonrr a-IH tim ~IoUDQ w.0.~ MU8

h r

be# an#ra

dasa t o the foot-8 by m t f ~ i a i r l &einqp.

Llberi

hilt,

the

rl8ration

sf aha

&mamu

fiulldlrrg w t u r ~ o t

related

t~

a p e l ~ ~ ~ ~ a a t bmah

mrk.

ThU.+f

om,

tb.

abloluw

sattkrasafi

or

t b h l l d i a j g hrrm had

to

b8

a8BSlg.kd.

PcwQuaaWp,

Ism1 posats

-PI,

e8tebllmbmd

in

19x5 1;1~0ttl3d

the uutalb+ of

th.

bullQSng

all

a t th. rrme a w m a 09

8Wn8.

srrrrrl

Z s - l 8aurwr ma+ arsbds durirrg 19l5 wkrg b b sntipuldrr a t rr-

and

& $ha

build-

u

~sfamrurea.

8 l ~ e 1 N 9 ma

uuwal

h v o l

rumwy

of

t b

w i g h a 1 p a l a t m hU

been

lWLdCI .IIa m m y

kledrior

pint8

ham

been addab t o

tbw

ru-y. rQy reatustLDg thaL t b 8 @

antrrPaa8

ham

aoO

l ~ m d @ h a 0 bc#neQmmrt%on i t worr

poraibla

W appawrlmat.

(13)

th8W

mabraquaat

r+td;lmuat,

9

p r o t t l ~ ~ F . . c I P ~ ; auteide

~ 1 ~ 9 3 ) t a r

el+va*Poarm

und oolgrolnl;: wiW

weaant

i n r i b

parl~3lrWlr

alavr%lonrr,

I t woe

porstble

to rrppm%[email protected] thr,

orfgtina3

$murod

floor

aXevatlan,

rJy aaapssiw #ound

floor

e l a r r t i o n r

uit'h

barsumat flow elsvatlona a t p o h t r

~rbova

m e m o f b t at ooluara~, loomlrlaar ( Y h a ~ 110Va1~ll$l 8bOuLd 000Ur a8 a w%t! % t Was p08ldib.0

t o

datamino

tb original

bascrmt

~ S W ?

alevat%on.

'Pbsre -ragart-

#on8

wrr

-do

for

aapacata

p a r t 8 o f the building usd

in eaeb

8.m th+ p 4 8 U t 8 WI)m YifhiPL 000% td 0.03 II-tt;. WLth

original rlwa%lear Q**a-&aed,,

st

war

po8ribZa

b~ u r m

artala+;i

urd

memt

l a v a 1 poin$r,

tagattar

#o draw the cbantowm

Ql

d W f m -

tSaI 8 0 t t l + m n I r e

Xf t b urlllpption a t rsr,

rrovaaenti of

tt#l end

+n$ranas8

Us8 Cmaa, the.+ e a r b u r r Wmld

npFe8aXiE

abrolutr,

mttlmmnt,

4wevm, w i t h -1s arrwmptlton, p a ~ C 8

st'

tihe build- sj)rlob

m a t

ds+p irOOtbng;8 m r u n d b ha+. ~ $ 8 - Oe;EO

[email protected]*,

bbM

$ 8

no

ap-0; # a m tr3q bbw

fmtlw8

Vhiah a m

l o a d t e

r.5

*XI#

mr

BqUrUMl

m t

P ~ ( U ) , W a 8 Q-0fld6.d

that

entrmmr worn

drqgg.4

dom by

Che

min

bu&ldSmg, C a r e f u l

oba8mtloa of

tnr e n ~ m m r i n t l l e r k r

that

tbl8

Ir

po8aible. A l % b u , g h tihm vertirtal stnmrr uncbr. p l a t "a*

in

:,'igtrrc, $ rppellrr

to

bm i n m f P i o i a a $

to

ow8e eottlsararent, I t i'a breed oa ttas

aarmptlon

o f oomplek

ilex3billtgr

ar

t b f'ortl~chtfon and w . j

a o t u r l l y br h m r ~ + d duls

ts

8 U f ' f m s r

of

tha slQrutu#l. 'Ph.roform t o o b b r i a abao1ut;e rsttZsrrmC Q,hO fee*

ware

e d b 4 to rl;l o ~ t r t s u r a

(14)

A ocmprslaaa of

elerntioar

Wan in

l9ZS

and

1951

shau

that during thut perfod m

a m q r mttlamm&t

a t

0.10 f e a b

brs

oaourrvd

a l l ~ F O W t b .I?itrilw

oxeep1;

1n tbb vlolaity o f tb. twar.

&n

tb

twer

joku t b HuiZdiag

no oh*.

tP

elmvrtiaa

ha8 O Q O U T ~ + ~ &we a d at tbm

oulhr

adge o f Was

t a m p t b

wells

r p ~ w

t o b r a

t.2r.n

a b u t

0.13

i

~

dm

t

to rubLua8 &to,

r.rsoorl

of

tbo

upp.r

p e t ; o? the

truer.

Th.

total n l t l o a m a t M a 6truo6u.m

probab%y

bcrmirtr

of

elratia,

plrstiio,

aRd ooa.olidatioa

amt%l-t.

A n afi8ulllpt.d

etrlua*loa

o f t b rtol&*rSbubhr& of

maoh ef

tb.88

t o lam t o t a l

10tt3crmont

would br o f l i t t l e um ia v i a w

or

tha

limitml

iniommtios oo

Us

atrrngtb

propertlea af

a i r

aoS1 .ad

t)w 1w.k o t fmtr

eoaoramiagl

tho Q W S J

h i 8 t o ~ y

or

th8

IsuilcUage

O-pa1l.y opaaLingtr t b foot- Boad~

mxeard

t b

aIretlo rang.

of

t b sell so thut

alartia estU-atlr

would

be ilolla-d by palratio

drf~rrrtione

Althowh tbi, oorptributinn

of

@neb

is

udmma,

a ooasidarable pPi.t Or

t b

uot#.rsnt

ahown lm

P L g w

11

i r

tbqght t o be due t o

t b m

OCUH~. mamaably . ~ ~ u r a t a

rtetilrration

of t b

ammat

Of 8 0 1 ~ 0 l i d a t b n

aottLaaeaC

e ~ u l d pwbebly

ba

uda

by d a b r ~ h l n g

tho votiotion

in W P ~ ~ P rroatant hnedtrbrly

rwdkr

eemrm3

r-tU%gr

rrrd t b i a w i t b baitla1 wr*ar

ooakstr. O n e

or

the pwpsamr

at

raLfsg boring& under Um

buPldlng

wrr

t o arabe tkda mwe~18m. S t n r l u r

alrfslbutloaa

Ibru,

buwmnr,

tbp* it

ia

888antid

tO ubt8in s p l a u d i ~ b t l y b a o w

t b i ? o s t w r

tor

t M 8 pur,iae+. Thr air. o f tbo$bq$r urb gmmmdwrf+r

olondltiaaa makr, t b pruawarant

af

thew

amplee

U l t f l s u l t bu*

(15)
(16)
(17)

"Ek

uurt

pursl%sa# teaturn of *for, wt$le)lcnt

of

%Sw

m t ~ ~ a t u r a

Q O O W P ~ l ~ ~ u x b d t5

8 o m % - 0 l m ~ l u

~ I b t a*

t b

mar

Of thr, bui2-, wmrolly raprrr.uzk4 by polnC8 gl rad

h

b

F Q u n 1. hating

fomts

b . ~ Wr

part

l l ' l ~ h u v y

und

j a t aet,tlrr#rb

are

beera

u a l l .

k pom8ibLa rrraaon rrgr b. thrt

th.

rrxoovatiion w r s

lmft

longer

thun t a u 2 urtf tat &ry%qj irzomaamd t h pmaoa.o& ldatlain load.

Tho ooewmmue o f rilt

lryrar

i 8 w o r t 4 o f e m * .

It

l a bellmrcrd t h a t m i l t

layerr

U a e l 4

w i l l

t a d W atat tha load aorm thao the

e l a a t i e

lndieat6.8

(for

e x 4 9 1 m m a

Taylor 19128

or

Caragrmdo rrb Y a m 19&).

Th.Fd'@mr

v a r l i o r l

mtmar

p v e f l l a r ~n&r

t

W

b u i l d l w

wan mb3.fS.d

ta

a ~ a t o a apyrorimkf y t o thm dmstarguwd t5rawy {a+. ~ y l o l r 39tar)

ha

oicw

oST

th9 8 t t r t U i o m t i o a

of

ttm aoll.

a88

oP U m m d l f i m d

vr1ur.m

rrbwod

th.

0ompu;rkd

mmttlesseea

r r h o u ~

in

%&[email protected] 5 by 8-t

a.

silt ~ Y ~ F I

W O U ~ ~

a&

pard* l a k ~ d d l P d ~ ~ 0 fop -1%-

datioa ead ro

aPlw

wn

sapid 8 m t t l n m t .

~MrPsrLrrg aoyeoity ooqputrtiona w a oospl10uW by Um

uaururl

Puundatbn o u l s l l ~ o f tbn

bullding.

IO

i r psrrlblm, fMwI,nPr

to obtatn

.~pm~iWtcr values f o r ultl-bm bmuiryg c a p u f t y by arr- vulloua cllqulvalrmt cao4imgulrr

fas&trrq~e.

Th.

followbg fomu3rm

(Twrqpal 1943)

uara

u u d

far

d)ria

aoaputatiola;

1)

Fbr

X a o d ahmo f a i l -

C l - e t 3 , + y P t t l q

ubra

q

-

taltint+ b8I;IPlrPg aap.01W o

-

a e b a i u n

(18)

Y

=

uait

-%@at

0s

m i l

Df r doplSfa 0% WblXI1$ a d J a w % W ~ Q Q +

Eta

= 5 7

for

@

=

0

lrip

=

1.0

for

@

-

0

w h r v

+

=

smglo

of

irstomel f'i-tet;%m

2) Fbs

grsrsr.l

war

i r l l u r m q'

-

elo'

+

Y

DfNq'

W ~ MA(*'

-

3.0

rep

@

-

O

mfq'

=

1.0

t a r o

-

0

Om-Sulltr

atu

rrcPoiontlaad omrgworrin, r t m t h war ured

fc#r thr

roluo of arohrrian, H u i l l u a value8 wem obkZ.wb u r w c p ~ ? . u "8"

in

Fburru 6 -4 abkimm V.luma urM o b t r b a d u b b g so- ' C ~ " e

Per

90lllqlu~tlvm g u ~ ~ & e a tb5

fo~%baga

0- be diridmd in$a f o u r gmtrrp8r

I

I)

h o e t a r mCbr

tha

t-r,

( 2 ) rquam foot3.n&r

u a & ~

the

o a t m

of

tk. b u i l w ,

( 3 )

a l l remalaw

deep ftmtirqgr,

(4)

all

&allow

iootbtgr. A aoqpuci-n

of

aompuWd

v r l w r t o raturl bsaAag premmwe8

Is

.horn

ig Tabla d . Xf

w i l l

b. reur

f r o m

thaw vrr2uer the* a l l toot-8 .ru rnfe f##

g s a s t l l ro+w tatlure

waere

maximum

vrlulla iiBIp

00km8laa a m

wed.

This i r tba -8%

imr*ant ob8mrrrt$an

k o u l a e

t&

mu&mam valwrr

for

oobbrfon

o m

t&

m a r t pmbrbls

vuluer of'

mtur.l

roili nad i t 18 d m

l i k a l y

that tUr brittle

roll

would

fail

in

ipamrel

o b a c rathsr than lseal 8iuu.

Speoiral a t t m t i c w shorrld be dr- Ico U m boarlag valuer

tipder

tb

W r .

AAthougPl tha footiryf grr&rrmrs ul. o r a o w d t o be &Bi&h$ly

rora

than

4

t;anu

p e r rpwrrv toat, t* wllr psob.blg

(19)

a rhfft ia tW crantn o f $~~ltitfJ o

t&

I ~ W I P t i l t e d

my

Q m m $he

arln

bulldlng.

It

i r l l k a l y the*

thr

a e b ~ u l u l t i m a B m ba- a a p a a i w m8 n e w l y ~?Wa6bnd rod tho* I t

war

mrm813s3y

alom

ts

thn aompubd vaua.

zi?Euu

4.

All

B b z l W

~ 0 0 t i - m 3.7 2.5

3.3

4.8

X.5-3.7

O f tho o a e r v a l m o &a Trblm it

it

i 8 muif i s l e a t $o a o k tba* Ilunimm

ralm8,

u a w r l n g

laeal

mlm.1~. md

minimum

valuer br-4

oa anme

ma~nfirucf

crorqprerrir+ rtm)q$&a tar+

e%6wd+d d-yit fMdzW9.

P h i 8

rttlby

naa t ~ o paxpoU8t f i r s t , t o compare f u l l -

r o r l e nttkemmat8 with t b o r c l t i e a l

rttlrrrnt

oomputat&eaa

mad raoaad, to rtudy 8& 8n43twectngr gropurtrler

at

a m a r i a #

ely wtzioh osoura

in

G ' t n . 4 .

uul

whi&

i r

probably 8-m t o

.aw

n e b @

crlyr

iP

s-r

aorsafrier.

Tim

.soorad

p w t a t

tb5r

(20)

e r t i m * a r

of

8 e t t l e w ~ Q . i t

is

balleved that; tbr,

mlrrtls

o& the B h o r y

of

oonrolidatloa dear

not .pply tor

tar . o l J . It 28

mat

porribls on b b a t 8

of

pmamnt ini~matitm

t o

daW1LJljll#) the arfooti

of

08uh Of tiWm i a a t 0 ~ 8 .

&dam aqglrmepiag gmmtica wad b v m e ~ m r k d

8everrl irqpmvaarnta ta

Wm

f'oundettoa

doaign

for

this bull-.

tbIFat

i t wUIQ not ba cdvisabX6 t;o have Sootlngr on

t

m

lavslrr,

Th+ wb-bmamnt estrZb brvo

oomvoniantly

a%Wnd+d o m &

#w ubl+

m a of tb+ MldS.mg,

mum

r e i r l a g

tLM

w e u a o f

amavatad

. o i l

w

WS of

$b,

w8.l

might

of tha

barilw. Seaand,

ao

footsag;

J l ~ 8 6 W O 8 h V O mxoeabad 2.0 -8 P O P 8 q u m f o c ~ s e Fbr t U 8 u k u o t u r a 8 b ~ d a m d . 8 1 8 ~ 1 1 ) ~

muht

bow 8 p . ~ l f l e d t

floatUag

r l rb

foundatdon d t h

ona&@3

t i g i d i t g $o r o r l r r t

ury

d l f f . r r s b 1 . S

mrwnnt, Priatlan

p i l e 8 n o t auitrble sipra Ittr,

-11

5 r

(21)

b e e p i l e a would tH uubu;ly espsaelvr btsoeusm

~~~~~•

be*-

%# not m a a d

a h r a

r dopto of 139 frzl%.

'b

rtudy

ef

tba @ o i l

an

whtob t n i a

rtrucrttara

f 8 fc~aado4. har rh9#r tbrt tb. prodl~tdon o f rettlomoatr br&d

on

t b

oon+mt;ion.l

theow of

aonnolid.tian would

bo rronrldeably

In

mm~p,

The -sum% for t h i 8 biaompmoy Urn n o t pt b n a

fouaa4,

C a a l p . x l l m 8

of

somaptated urd

a6tuaP

ultimata

be*

aapaoitisr

8 b w tbollf

to

ba qPit4 m ~ ~ u r a t e

iLI

t h i r

IU+.

P b reaulta

alro

h d i o a t o %hat tha

roll

stmqgth

in r l t u ,

p a ~ t t o u l a r l y

ia t'b,

i i r r l u r d

sane, l a r p p m a i r t l y ligruatot than th. rtlrrngth

of

.1rrqpl80.

&3 -6 i u 1 ~ ~ 8 ~ 1 W a r n irr thr advlstrg~a o f

[email protected]~rpcrrt

nab rtt+rptbg W e r p l o l n whae hrr hrgprrnrd ~aOb1? thra twLllg

ks p-bla*

f m m

l i d t a d 6 ~ i d m 0 0 W L u t

w i l l

Although

fouabnttoa

h a

r u l f l l l s d i t 8 purpoam

M t W r

thkl wmul& b r expooWd, l b r

prrfonrrraao

ku8 rLrwwn the d i 8 r d r u r t y m s

of

Wm

o l b r trrditimml. apprearrb a8 aowemd ultb th.

praoeat

4 4

(22)

'Ph.

work

presented i n this paper has been a d e p o s s i b l e

through ths 00-operation and kind assirtancue of

&.

6 , A , Gerdner, Chief Aruhitect of the Federal Department of Pub110 % ~ k s and

D r . P. J. Alcock, Curator o f the Muse.clm and wmberr of t h e i r s t a f f s .

The author is indebted t o many a a s o c i a t a s for a s s i s t a n c e , in p R r t i a u l a r t o tdeasrr. D , J b L , Kennedy, K o N e B P l m end J.D.MoCrea of

the D i v i s i o n

of

Building Researah

f o r

woxlk on the l o a d a n a l y s e s , t a a t i w

,

and coaputationr Many h e l p f u l suggestions were r e c e i v e d from fdetmrr, W.R .Schrievsr and E'.L,Peekover,

S g e o i a l mention sh+uld be mads of the enoourlagemnt and

r r s i r t a n o e g i v e n to the author by kr. Ii.F.Legget, Dlrscrtor of the Divlaf on of Building Hesearuh w i t h whose perraission this papr I s pre rented.

(23)

LIST

OF

ILLWSTRATLUMS

Figure No.

1

2

3

Foundation prseeursa

In

ton#

par a q u m foot

Location of Borings A and C r e l a t i v e to building llluatration of typioal

mttlement

orcrakr

in

ba B~met

nt

General view of building showing portion of tower to moved

Verticral straas diatributlon under t y p i o a l points

Diatrfbution of p u l n sire w i t h Q p t h (M.I.T.

olasaifiaatton)

Variation of w a t e r eontent and Attsrberg llmltr with depth

Variation of unaonf ined aompmsaion etmngtb w i t h depth

Typioal prsasure void r a t l o oucveo

Variation

OF

overbmden and p~eocrneslidation # t r e s s e s with depth

(24)

REFERENCES

Caeagrande, A. (1948). ClaraifictaBion and Idantifioation

o f

S o i l s .

h e r l o a n Socisty of C i v i l Ebginarsra. 'SFanaaetions. v.113. p.901-99: Cesagranda, A. and R.E.Fadum (1944). Application of S o i l Meahaniaa

i n

Usrigning Dullding Foundationer

.

h s r i o a n Soaiety of C i v i l Engineers. Tranaaotiona. v.109. p.363-490.

Johnrton, W.A. (1917). P l a i s t o catno and Reoent Deposits I n th8 Vioinity

of Ottawa, with

a

Dasorigtlon

of

the S o l l a . lOsmoir 101,

11.84,

~ e o l o ~ ; i e t a l S e r i e s , Governmnt P r i n t i n g m o a u , Ottawa.

6%.

leumark, N.M.

(1942).

I n f l w n o e Charts f o r Computatfon of S t m a c e s i n E l a ~ l t l ~ Poundationre Engineering Ewerimant S t a t i o n E3ulIetln. S e r i e r No. 338. University of Illinois, Urbana, 111.

28

p a

Rutledge, P .C

.

(la)

.

RslaLion

of

Umdiaturbed Sampling t o Laboratory Testing.

Amariaan

Sooiety o f G f v i l 8ngineera. Transactions.

V. ioq. g . 1155-1216.

Taylor, D.W. (1948). Fundaixentala o f so3 1 Meohanios.

J.

\*11sy and

Sons, New York. 700 p.

Teraaghi, 11.

(1943).

Theoretiaal S o i l b o h a n i o s .

J a

Miley and Sons,

(25)

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Figure No.

p.23

Références

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